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Paul Crittenden

Paul Crittenden reviews ‘What Happened at Vatican II’ by John W. O’Malley and ‘Keepers of the Keys of Heaven’ by Roger Collins

September 2009, no. 314 01 September 2009
Popes have long been wary of Church Councils, seeing them as possible rivals to their claim to absolute authority. When the Council of Constance met in 1414, there were three contending popes, each elected by a set of cardinals, and each with political support across Europe. At its end, two had been deposed, and the third, Gregory XII, having been recognised as pope, agreed to resign. A commission ... (read more)

Paul Crittenden reviews 'Providence Lost' by Genevieve Lloyd

June 2009, no. 312 01 June 2009
Providence, understood as God’s governance and care of the world, has an important place in religion. Church leaders speak of it with a view to giving comfort in adversity, especially when there has been large-scale loss of life, as in terrorist attacks or earthquakes. There is often some defensiveness in this appeal to providence because of the tension between belief in a loving and all-powerfu ... (read more)